Generic Functions in QPR ProcessAnalyzer
Aggregation functions
Following aggregation functions are available:
 Average: Average of the items (sum of items divided by count of items). Can be used for numbers, DateTimes and Timespans.
 Count: Number of items. Can be used for any type of data.
 Median: Median, i.e. the middle value of the sorted data. If there are even number of items, the average of the two middle items. Can be used for numbers, DateTimes and Timespans.
 Min: Lowest/first value in the data. Can be used for data that can be sorted.
 Max: Highest/last value in the data. Can be used for data that can be sorted.
 Percentile: Percentile value. Can be used for numbers, DateTimes and Timespans.
 Stdev: Sample standard deviation. Can be calculated for numbers, DateTimes and Timespans.
 Stdevp: Population standard deviation. Can be calculated for numbers, DateTimes and Timespans.
 Sum: Sum of the items. Can be used for numbers and Timespans.
 StringJoin: Joins array of strings together. The first parameter is a string that is placed between the joined strings.
 Var: Sample variance. Can be used for numbers.
 Varp: Population variance. Can be used for numbers.
Examples:
Sum([3, 2, 4]) Returns: 9 Count([[1, 2], [3, 4, 5]]) Returns: [2, 3] Sum([[1, 2], [3, 4, 5]]) Returns: [3, 12] Percentile([1,2,3,4,5], 0.75) Return: 4 Sum([]) Returns: null StringJoin(", ", ["one", "two", "three"]) Returns: one, two, three
When aggregating numerical values, null values are treated as zeros. Nulls can be removed with RemoveNulls function. In the Min and Max functions, nulls are ignored. Null values can be removed before aggregating (the following example shows how).
Average([1, 5, null]) Returns: 2 Average(RemoveNulls([1, 5, null]) Returns: 3
Aggregation operations are performed to the leaf level. i.e. the deepest level in the hierarchy. When aggregating, the leaf level arrays are replaced by the aggregated values, and thus the depth of the hierarchy decreases by one. In addition to the aggregation functions, functions that modify the contents of leaf arrays (OrderBy, Distinct, ...), the operation will be performed separately for every leaf array.
OrderByValue([[4, 3], [2, 1]]) Returns: [[3, 4], [1, 2]]
Mathematical functions
Function  Parameters  Description 

Abs (Number)  Number 
Calculates the absolute value of a specified number. Examples: Abs(4) Returns: 4 Abs(2.7) Returns: 2.7 Abs(0) Returns: 0 
Acos (Number)  Number 
Calculates the angle whose cosine is the specified number. The parameter is a number representing a cosine, which must be between 1 and 1. Examples: Acos(0.3584) Returns: 1.204242852965772 Acos(0.3584) Returns: 1.9373498006240213 
ArgMax (Object) 

Returns those objects in the array giving maximum values for the given expression when evaluated in the object's context. Examples: ArgMax([5, 1, 6, 4, 3, 3, 6, 5, 4, 1, 1], _) Returns: [6, 6] ArgMax(EventLogById(1).Cases, Duration) Returns: An array of cases having the longest duration. 
ArgMin (Object) 

Returns those objects in the array giving minimum values for the given expression when evaluated in the object's context. Examples: ArgMin([5, 1, 6, 4, 3, 3, 6, 5, 4, 1, 1], _) Returns: [1, 1, 1] ArgMin(EventLogById(1).Cases, Duration) Returns: An array of cases having the shortest duration. 
Asin (Number)  Number 
Calculates the angle whose sine is the specified number. The parameter is a number representing a sine, which must be between 1 and 1. Examples: Asin(0.3584) Returns: 0.36655347382912462 Asin(+0.3584) Returns: 0.36655347382912462 
Atan (Number)  Number 
Calculates the angle whose tangent is the specified number. Examples: Atan(1) Returns: 0.78539816339744828 Atan(1) Returns: 0.78539816339744828 
Ceiling (Integer) 
Number 
Returns the smallest integer that is greater than or equal to the specified number. Example: Ceiling(1.3) Returns: 2 
Cos (Number)  Number 
Calculates the cosine of the specified angle measured in radians. Examples: Cos(1) Returns: 0.54030230586813977 Cos(1) Returns: 0.54030230586813977 
Exp (Number)  Number 
Calculates the e raised to the specified power. Examples: Exp(1) Returns: 2.7182818284590451 Exp(1) Returns: 0.36787944117144233 
Floor (Integer) 
Number 
Returns the largest integer that is less than or equal to the specified number. Example: Floor(1.9) Returns: 1 
Hash (String)  String to hash 
Returns 11 characters long hash value for the given string. There can be following characters in the hash: AZaz09+/. For null or empty string, "AAAAAAAAAAA" is returned. The hashing is a repeatable operation, i.e., the same input string always returns the same hash value. Note also that hashing lead to collisions, i.e., two different input strings may give the same hash value. The hash is calculated using Murmur3 algorithm (https://blog.teamleadnet.com/2012/08/murmurhash3ultrafasthashalgorithm.html) and the first 64 bits of the 128bit hash value is returned encoded as base64url without padding (RFC 4648 §5). Examples: Hash("abcdef") Returns: 3sqiubzVXxA 
IEEERemainder (Number) 

Calculates the remainder resulting from the division of a specified number by another specified number. Uses formula: dividend  (divisor * Round(dividend / divisor)) Note that the formula is different than in the % operator, which uses formula: (Abs(dividend)  (Abs(divisor) * (Floor(Math.Abs(dividend) / Abs(divisor))))) * Sign(dividend) Examples: IEEERemainder(26, 4) Returns: 2 IEEERemainder(0, 0) Returns: NaN 
Log (Number) 

Calculates the logarithm of a specified number. If the second parameter is not provided, it's the natural logarithm (base e). The second parameter can be used to define another base for the logarithm. Examples: Log(5) Returns: 1.6094379124341003 Log(10, 2) Returns: 3.3219280948873626 
Log10 (Number) 
Number 
Calculates the base 10 logarithm of a specified number. Examples: Log10(5) Returns: 0.69897000433601886 Log10(5) Returns: NaN 
Pow (Number) 

Calculate a specified number raised to the specified power. Examples: Pow(5, 3) Returns: 125 Pow(5, 3) Returns: 125 
Random (Number)  (none)  Returns a random number value between 0 and 1, where 0 is included, but 1 is not.
Example: Random() Returns: 0.1243234243 (for example) 
Round (Float) 
Number of decimals (Integer) 
For numbers, rounds the number to the specified number of decimal. Number of decimals can also be negative, in which case the number is rounded to the nearest tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. For DateTimes, rounds given date time by given time span or given number of seconds. Note that the number and DateTime to be rounded needs to be provided as a context object (not as a parameter). Examples: (1.254).Round(1) Returns: 1.3 (162.111111).Round(2) Returns: 200 DateTime(2017, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).Round(10) Returns: DateTime(2017, 1, 2, 3, 4, 10) DateTime(2017, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).Round(TimeSpan(1)) Returns: DateTime(2017, 1, 2) 
Sign (Number) 
Number 
Calculates an integer that indicates the sign of a number, either 1, 0 or 1. Examples: Sign(10) Returns: 1 Sign(0) Returns: 0 Sign(10) Returns: 1 
Sin (Number) 
Number 
Calculates the sine of the specified angle. Examples: Sin(3.14) Returns: 0.0015926529164868282 Sin(3.14) Returns: 0.0015926529164868282 
Sqrt (Number) 
Number 
Calculates the square root of a specified number. Examples: Sqrt(81) Returns: 9 Sqrt(0.9) Returns: 0.3 
Tan (Number) 
Number 
Calculates the tangent of the specified angle. Examples: Tan(1) Returns: 1.5574077246549023 Tan(1) Returns: 1.5574077246549023 
Conversion functions
Function  Parameters  Description 

ToFloat (Number) 
Object to convert 
Converts the given object to a decimal number. 
ToInteger (Integer) 
Object to convert 
Converts the given object into an integer. If the object can not be converted into an integer, an exception will be thrown. If the object as a decimal number, it will also be rounded to the nearest integer. Examples: ToInteger(1.234) Returns: 1 ToInteger(1.5) Returns: 2 ToInteger(1313.6) Returns: 1314 ToInteger(123456789012345678) Returns: 123456789012345678 ToInteger("5") Returns: 5 ToInteger("5") Returns: 5 
ToString (String) 

Converts the given object to a string. The optional second parameter defines formatting that is needed when converting the following data types:
Examples: ToString(1) + " < " + ToString(2) Returns: "1 < 2". "Case=\'" + ToString(a) + "\'" Returns: "Case='<string representation of object a>'" ToString(DateTime(2017,1,2,3,4,5,6)) Returns: "20170102T03:04:05" ToString(DateTime(2017,1,2,3,4,5,6), "dd.MM.yyyy") Returns "02.01.2017" ToString(1.2, "0.00") Returns "1.20" ToString(TimeSpan(16,4,3,17,250), "%d") Returns "16" 
Data source connectors
Function  Parameters  Description 

CallWebService (Dictionary)  Dictionary of parameters 
CallWebService is a generic function for any kind of http requests. Support natively RESTstyle web services by automatically formatting and parsing json in the request and response, so dictionary/array objects are used without converting them to strings (see examples below). If using xmlbased web services, formatting and parsing of xml needs to be taken care of manually. The function takes as a dictionary of following parameters:
CallWebService returns a dictionary with properties:
The ContentType http request header is set as follows: If the ContentType parameter is provided, that is used. If ContentType is not provided, and body is dictionary/array, request ContentType is set to application/json. Otherwise no ContentType header is set. If the ContentType parameter is application/xwwwformurlencoded, body is expected to be a dictionary where the name/values pairs are encoded using FormUrlEncodedContent method (see examples below). Examples: Get a webpage and check the status code of the response: let resp = CallWebService(#{ "Address": "https://www.google.com/search?q=QPR+ProcessAnalyzer" }); resp.StatusCode; Get the server version in a QPR ProcessAnalyzer environment: let resp = CallWebService(#{ "Address": "https://processanalyzer.onqpr.com/qprpa/api/serverinfo" }); resp.Response.serverVersion; Authenticate to QPR ProcessAnalyzer (to get an access_token) and call expression query (note the ContentType required by the token request): let server = "http://processanalyzer.onqpr.com/qprpa"; let resp = CallWebService(#{ "Address": server + "/token", "Method": "POST", "ContentType": "application/xwwwformurlencoded", "Body": #{ "grant_type": "password", "username": "qpr", "password": "demo" } }); resp = CallWebService(#{ "Address": server + "/api/expression/query", "Method": "POST", "ContentType": "application/json", "Headers": #{ "Authorization": "Bearer " + resp.Response.access_token }, "Timeout": 120000, "Body": #{ "Root": "Models", "Dimensions": null, "Values": [ #{"Name": "Name", "Expression": "Name"} ], "Ordering":[ #{"Name": "Name", "Direction": "Ascending"} ] } }); resp.Response[0].Name Upload contents of datatable id 321 to using Web API to a datatable id 123: CallWebService(#{ "Address": "https://processanalyzer.onqpr.com/qprpa/api/importfile?importMode=datatable&fileType=csv&objectId=123&append=true&csvTimeFormat=yyyyMMdd%20HH%3Amm%3Ass,fff", "Method": "POST", "Body": DatatableById(321).SqlDataFrame.Collect().ToCsv(), "Headers": #{ "Authorization": "Bearer " + resp.Response.access_token }, "Timeout": 6000000 }); 
OpenAIChatCompletion (Dictionary)  Request dictionary  Calls OpenAI's Chat Completions API (https://platform.openai.com/docs/apireference/chat) to generate natural language responses to user prompts. Both the request and response is a dictionary following the Chat Completions API specification. The messages parameter is the only mandatory fields in the request. The model parameter defines the OpenAI LLM model to use, and if not defined, model specified by the OpenAIDefaultModelName setting will be used.
To use the function, the OpenAi API key needs to be configured in OpenAIAPIKey configuration table. Example: Response to a user request: let response = OpenAIChatCompletion(#{ "model": "gpt3.5turbo", "messages": [ #{ "role": "system", "content": "You are a process mining expert making intelligent suggestions how to improve processes." }, #{ "role": "user", "content": "Give me three suggestions how to improve a sales process with bottlenecks." } ] }); response["choices"][0]["message"]["content"]; 
Miscellaneous functions
Function  Parameters  Description 

Where 
Condition expression 
Returns the context object if the given expression evaluates to true. Examples: [1,2,3,4].Where(_>2) Returns: [3,4] EventLogById(1).Cases.Where(Duration > TimeSpan(10)) Returns all cases where duration is more than 10 days (in eventlog id 1). EventLogById(1).Events.Where(Timestamp < DateTime(2020, 1,1)) Returns all events which occurred before 1.1.2020 (in eventlog id 1). 
If 

If the first parameter is true, returns the value of the second parameter. Otherwise returns the value of the third parameter. The function always evaluates only either the second or third parameter, but never both. Note that the function needs to starts with a capital letter, because otherwise it's interpreted as the if operator. Examples: If(Now.Second % 2 == 0, "Even second", "Odd second") Returns: "Event second" or "Odd second" depending on the time of the evaluation. For("i", 0, i < 10, i + 1, i).If(_ % 2 == 0, _, _remove) Returns: [0, 2, 4, 6, 8] 
RemoveNulls (Array) 
Array 
Removes all the supported null values from given hierarchical object. Never removes arrays containing removed null values. Returns given object with null values removed. Examples: RemoveNulls([1, [], [null], [2, _remove, [_empty, 3, 4], _empty, null, 5]]) Returns: [1, [], [], [2, [3, 4], 5]] RemoveNulls(["foo": null, "bar": 2, "poof": [1, _empty, 3]]) Returns: [ "foo": 0, "bar": 2, "poof": [ 1, 3 ] ] 
Catch 

Calculates the given expression and if any exceptions are thrown during the calculation, catches that exception and returns the given result. Note that this function does not catch any syntactical errors. Examples: Catch(1, 1234) Returns: 1 Catch(undefined, 1234) Returns: 1234 Catch([1,2].undefined, 1234) Returns: 1234 Catch(EventLogById(1), 1234) Returns: 1234 
AsParallel 
Additional parameters 
Performs all the following chaining operations in parallel to improve performance. Items are divided into parts which size is determined by the ParallelTaskSize parameter, and each part is executed as an independent task in parallel. Parallel execution has a certain cost, so it might not be optimal to run each item as a separate task (increase ParallelTaskSize to decrease number of tasks). On the other hand, to large ParallelTaskSize leads to too few parallel tasks, and then all processing capacity is not used. As a parameter, takes a dictionary that accepts optional property ParallelTaskSize, which is the size of the segments the root array will be split into. If the length of the input array is not divisible by ParallelTaskSize, the last segment will have less items than this configured value. The default size is 1. The AsParallel function call doesn't need to be part of the chaining, and thus it can be called before the chaining. Examples: Run several ODBC queries simultaneously: let regions = ["New York", "Los Angeles", "Dallas", "London"]; AsParallel(["ParallelTaskSize": 1]); regions.ImportOdbc("...", "SELECT * FROM [Data] Where Region = '" + _ + "'") Run a complex filtering operation for cases: Cases.AsParallel(["ParallelTaskSize": 1000]).Where(...) Sum(Sum(([NumberRange(1, 100)].AsParallel(["ParallelTaskSize": 1]).For("i", 0, i < 100000, i + 1, i))[0])) Returns: 499995000000 The same expression without parallel processing: Sum(Sum(NumberRange(1, 100).For("i", 0, i < 100000, i + 1, i))) Returns: 499995000000 Sum([NumberRange(1, 100)].AsParallel(["ParallelTaskSize": 1]).WriteLog(_)) Returns: 5050 In addition, outputs all the numbers from 1 to 100 into log file in the order in which the tasks were executed. The previous example can also be written like this: AsParallel(["ParallelTaskSize": 1]); Sum(NumberRange(1, 100).WriteLog(_)); Returns: 5050 Count((([el.Cases].AsParallel(["ParallelTaskSize": 1000]):AnalyzeConformance(cm))[0]).Where(_==null)) Returns the number of cases conforming to a design/conformance model cm. The same expression without parallel processing: Count((el.Cases:AnalyzeConformance(cm)).Where(_==null)) AsParallel(["ParallelTaskSize": 1]); el.Cases.Events.Type.Name Returns a hierarchical object having cases of given event log (el) as root objects and array of event type names of the events in each case in the order of occurrence. The expressions related to every case in the returned hierarchical object are processed in a separate independent task (thus, each task will process "Events.Type.Name" expression in a separate task where the root object is a case). [[123, 456, 789]].AsParallel(["ParallelTaskSize": 1]).ScriptById(_).Run() Runs scripts with id's 123, 456 and 789 simultaneously. 
IsNull (Boolean) 
Value to test (Object) 
Tests whether given object is null, _empty or _remove. Returns true if it is any of those. If given a hierarchical object, applies the function as described in at the leaf level. Examples: ForEach("item", [1, "a", null, _empty, _remove], IsNull(item)) Returns: [false, false, true, true, true] IsNull(["foo":[null,"a"], "bar":[2,null]]) Returns: [ HierarchicalArray("foo", [true, false]), HierarchicalArray("bar", [false, true]) ] 
IsNullTop (Boolean) 
Object to test (Object) 
Tests whether given object is null, _empty or _remove. Returns true if it is any of those. The function does not aggregate values in hierarchical objects. Examples: ForEach("item", [1, "a", null, _empty, _remove], IsNullTop(item)) Returns: [false, false, true, true, true] IsNullTop(["foo":[null,"a"], "bar":[2,null]]) Returns: false 
GroupBy 

Groups given array by given expressions. Returns the given array splitted into groups in a way that each specified group expression creates one level of hierarchical arrays having the root object the same as the group expression result. Examples: GroupBy([1,2,2,3,3,4,5,5,4,4,4], _) Returns: [[1:[1], 2:[2, 2], 3:[3, 3], 4:[4, 4, 4, 4], 5:[5,5]] 
GroupByValue  Array to group 
Groups all unique values in given array. Returns the given array in a format which has all the values in the original array only once as root objects and the root objects in the original array as contents of the arrays inside contexts. In a way, this just switches root objects of hierarchical arrays to be the actual values and actual values to be root objects (without duplicates). For every item in the array, the behavior is as follows:
Examples: GroupByValue([1,2,2,3,3,4,5,5,4,4,4]) Returns: (The same as GroupBy([1,2,2,3,3,4,5,5,4,4,4], _)) [1:[1], 2:[2, 2], 3:[3, 3], 4:[4, 4, 4, 4], 5:[5,5]] GroupByValue([1:["a","b"],2:["b","c"],3:["c"],4:["d","e"],5:["d","d","d"]]) Returns: ["a":[1], "b":[1, 2], "c":[2, 3], "d":[4, 5, 5, 5], "e":[4]] Get count of item "2" in the array: Let(\"groupped\", GroupByValue([1,2,4,1,4,2,3,3,2,4])); Count(GetValueOfContext(2, groupped)) Returns: 3 
Coalesce 

Returns the second parameter if the first parameter is null or empty. If the the given object is a hierarchical object, all the leaf level values are coalesced separately. Examples: Coalesce(0, 1) Returns: 0 Coalesce(null, 1) Coalesce(_empty, 1) Coalesce(_remove, 1) All return: 1 Coalesce([[null, 1], [null, null]], 3) Returns: [[3, 1], [3, 3]] Coalesce([[null, 1], 2], 3) Returns: [[3, 1], null] Coalesce([1, [null, 2], null], 3) Returns: [1, [null, 2], 3] 
Transpose 
Matrix to transpose 
Transposes the given matrix. Examples: Transpose([[1,2], [3,4], [1,4]]) Returns: [[1, 3, 1], [2, 4, 4]] 
GarbageCollection  Calling this function performs a garbage collection in the QPR ProcessAnalyzer Server. The function returns the maximum generation before the garbage collection was run. This function is an experimental functionality, which purpose is to investigate the memory consumption and memory handling behavior of the QPR ProcessAnalyzer Server.  
GetContext 
Hierarchical array 
Returns the context of given hierarchical array, i.e. list of keys in the object. If the given object is not an hierarchical array, returns null. Examples: GetContext("a":1) Returns: "a" ["a":1, "b":2, 2:3].GetContext(_) Returns: ["a", "b", 2] ([1,2,3]:(_*2)).GetContext(_) Returns: [1, 2, 3] ["a":1, 2, 3].GetContext(_) Returns: ["a", null, null] 
GetValueOfContext 

Returns the value of specified context object in given hierarchical array, i.e. the value behind the key. If the key if found multiple times, the first occurrence is returned. Returns _empty if the given key was not found. Examples: GetValueOfContext("bar", ["foo":1, "bar":2]) Returns: [2] GetValueOfContext("bar", ["foo":1, "bar":2, "bar":"second"]) Returns: [2] GetValueOfContext("test", ["foo":1, "bar":2]) Returns: _empty 
SendEmail  Parameters dictionary  Sends an email message using the provided parameters. SMTP server settings need to be configured to be able to send email messages. Following parameters are supported:
Example: SendEmail(#{ "From": "example.from@address.com", "To": ["recipient.one@address.com", "recipient.two@address.com", "recipient.three@address.com"], "Subject": "Example Email", "Body": "QPR ProcessAnalyzer example script started running" }); 
WriteLog 
message (Object) 
When used in a script, writes the given text to the script log. The log entry is also made to the QPR ProcessAnalyzer log file. If the provided parameter is not a string, it's converted into string. The return value of the function is the provided message parameter, allowing to flexibly add the WriteLog into expressions (see the examples). Examples: WriteLog("Calculation executed.") Writes to log: Calculation executed. Sum(WriteLog([1, 2, 3, 4])) Returns: 10 Also writes an entry into the log showing the [1, 2, 3, 4] array in the pretty printed fashion. NumberRange(0, 4).(WriteLog("Iteration #" + (_ + 1)), _) Returns: [0, 1, 2, 3, 4] Also writes the following entries into log: Iteration #1 Iteration #2 Iteration #3 Iteration #4 Iteration #5 
TakeSample 

Randomly chooses the defined number of items from the provided array or rows from the DataFrame, and returns a new array or DataFrame containing those items. If the sample size is larger than the number of items/rows, the TakeSample function has no effect. Note that the order of items may change from the original. The seed is optional, and if not provided, the seed to be used is automatically generated. The "with replacements" parameter is optional (by default false). When false, same items appear maximum of once in the resulting array. When true, same items may appear multiple times in the resulting array. Examples: TakeSample([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10], 4) Returns [1, 9, 3, 4] (note: results may change) TakeSample([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10], 5, 9, true) Returns [5, 5, 1, 5, 3] TakeSample([1,2,3,4,5], 10) Returns [1,2,3,4,5] TakeSample( ToDataFrame( [[1,2],[3,4],[5,6]], ["a", "b"] ), 2 ).ToCsv() Returns a;b 5;6 3;4 
Eval  Expression (String) 
Evaluates the given expression. The Eval function can be used e.g., when the expression to be evaluated is generated during runtime, or is fetched during the script run from an external source. The expression is evaluated in the context where the Eval function exists, so it's possible to use variables defined outside the evaluated expression (see the example). Examples: Eval("1 + 1"); Result: 2 let myVar = 3; Eval("myVar + 2"); Result: 5 
Sleep  Duration (Timespan or integer as milliseconds) 
Suspends the expression execution for the given time duration. The parameter can either be a Timespan object or integer where the duration is specified as milliseconds. Examples: Sleep(Timespan(0, 0, 1))); Result: Sleeps for 1 minute Sleep(1000); Sleep for 1 second 
ToSqlExpression  Expression (String) 
Converts given string into SqlExpression. Note that the SqlExpression is not yet executed at this point. Examples: let expr = ToSqlExpression("Column(\"Cost\")"); 
Query  Query configuration (Object) 
Runs expression query (Web API: Expression/query) and returns results as an inmemory DataFrame (for inmemory queries) or SqlDataFrame (for queries run in the datasource, e.g., in Snowflake). You can use charts to help with creating the configuration: Configure a chart, and click the Query button in the chart settings (Advanced tab) to get the query configuration. Note that the json needs to be converted into expression language by adding hash characters (#) in the beginning of the curly braces of objects. Example: Inmemory query: let result = Query(#{ "ModelId": 123, "Root": "Cases", "MaximumRowCount": 10, "Dimensions": [ #{ "Name": "Account manager", "Expression": "Attribute(\"Account Manager\")" } ], "Values": [ #{ "Name": "Case count", "Expression": "Count(_)" } ], "Ordering": [ #{ "Name": "Case count", "Direction": "Descending" } ] }); Example: SqlDataFrame query ("Where" function is used additionally): let result = Query(#{ "ProcessingMethod": "dataframe", "ContextType": "model", "ModelId": 123, "Root": "Cases", "MaximumRowCount": 10, "Dimensions": [ #{ "Name": "Account manager", "Expression": "Column(\"Account Manager\")" } ], "Values": [ #{ "Name": "Case count", "AggregationFunction": "count" } ], "Ordering": [ #{ "Name": "Case count", "Direction": "Descending" } ] }) .Where(Like(Column("Account manager"), "Patricia%")) .Collect(); 
Variable  Variable name (String) 
Get value of specified variable where the variable name is given as a string. Examples: let x = 5; Variable("x") * 2; Returns: 10 
Ordering functions
Function  Parameters  Description 

OrderBy (array) 

Orders the given array using values from the given order expression. The order expression is evaluated once for each item in the array. The order expression supports all atomic (=not collection) primitive value types. Examples: OrderBy(["a", "x", "b", "z", "n", "l", "a"], _) Return: ["a", "a", "b", "l", "n", "x", "z"] OrderBy([9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1], _%3) Returns: [9,6,3,7,4,1,8,5,2] OrderBy([9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1], _%3 + _/30) Returns: [3,6,9,1,4,7,2,5,8] 
OrderByDescending (array) 

Result is same as in the OrderBy function, except the order is reverse. 
OrderByTop (array) 

Orders given toplevel array by the value of given expression using ascending order. Supports all value types, including multidimensional arrays. Order expression is evaluated in the context of each array item whose value determines the order of that item. Examples: OrderByTop([[1, 2, 3], [2, 2, 2], [3, 2, 1]], _[2]) Returns: [[3, 2, 1], [2, 2, 2], [1, 2, 3]] 
OrderByValue (array) 

Orders the given array using the natural order of items, for example numbers it's the increasing order, and for strings it's text ordering. OrderByValue(["a", "x", "b", "z", "n", "l", "a"]) Return: ["a", "a", "b", "l", "n", "x", "z"] 
OrderByValueDescending (array) 

Result is same as in the OrderByValue function, except the order is reverse. 
Looping functions
Function  Parameters  Description 

For 

Iterates the given expression until the given condition is met, and returns the results of the iterated expressions for every iteration as an array. Examples: For("i", 0, i < 4, i + 1, i) Returns: [0, 1, 2, 3] For("x", 0, x < 3, x + 1, For("y", 0, y < 3, y + 1, StringJoin(",", [x, y])) Returns: [["0,0", "0,1", "0,2"], ["1,0", "1,1", "1,2"], ["2,0", "2,1", "2,2"]] For("i", 0, i < 4, i + 1, DateTime(2010 + i)) Returns: [DateTime(2010), DateTime(2011), DateTime(2012), DateTime(2013)] For("str", "a", str != "aaaaa", str + "a", str) Returns: ["a", "aa", "aaa", "aaaa"] 
ForEach (2 parameters) 

Calls given function using all the elements of given array, where the calculation is done in the current context. The function must support calling with one parameter. Returns the results of the evaluation of given function for every iteration of the input array as an array. Examples: let sourceModel = First(Models.Where(Name == "SAP_OrderToCash")); let attributes = sourceModel.EventAttributes; let events = sourceModel.EventLog.Events; let func = att => Attribute(att); events.ForEach(attributes, func) Returns an array containing arrays of all the event attribute values for all the events. let myFunction = item => _ + item * 2; (5).ForEach([1,2,3], myFunction) Returns 7, 9, 11 (=5+1*2, 5+2*2, 5+3*2) 
ForEach (3 parameters) 

Repeats the given expression as many times there are items in the given array. Item in the array is available as the given variable in the expression. Examples: ForEach("i", [1,2,3], "Value is: " + i) Returns: Value is: 1 Value is: 2 Value is: 3 ForEach("item", EventLogById(1).Cases, Let("c" + item.Name, item)) Results: Creates expression variable variables like "c<casename>" for every case in the model. ForEach("myVariable", ["a", "b", "c"], myVariable + myVariable) Returns: aa bb cc 
NumberRange 

Creates an array of numbers within the given range using the given interval. Interval parameter is optional, and by default it is one. The interval can also be negative to get a sequence of decreasing numbers (then the Start needs to be greater than the End). Examples: NumberRange(1, 3) Returns: [1, 2, 3] NumberRange(7, 1, 2) Returns: [7, 5, 3, 1] NumberRange(1, 3, 0.5) Returns: [1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3] NumberRange(1, 3, 0.8) Returns: [1, 1.8, 2.6] NumberRange(6, 2, 2) Returns: [6, 4, 2] 
Repeat 

Repeats the defined expression the defined number of times. Examples: Repeat(3, "Repeat me!") Returns: "Repeat me!" "Repeat me!" "Repeat me!" Repeat(1, 5) Returns 5 
TimeRange 

Generates a timestamp array starting from the start timestamp with the defined interval, and ending when the end timestamp is reached. Note that this function only creates timestamps with equal durations, so it's not possible to e.g. create timestamps for each month (to do that, you can use the loops). Generate datetimes starting from Monday 20170101 and ending to Monday 20171231 including all Mondays between them: Timerange(Datetime(2018,1,1), Datetime(2018,1,1), Timespan(7)) 
Recursion functions
Function  Parameters  Description 

Recurse 

Evaluates the given expression recursively until given condition or recursion depth is met. The function returns all the traversed objects in a single array. When the stop condition expression evaluates to false, it will stop the current recursion without including the false evaluated object into the result. Default stop condition is !IsNull(_). The default maximum depth is 1000. Examples: (1).Recurse(_ + 1, _ < 5) Returns: [1, 2, 3, 4] event.Recurse(NextInCase) Returns: An array of all the events following given event inside the same case. event.Recurse(NextInCase, Type.Name != "Invoice") Returns: An array of all the events following given event inside the same case until event whose type name is "Invoice", which will itself not be included into the result. event.Recurse(NextInCase, Type.Name != "Invoice", 2) Returns: An array of all the events following given event inside the same case until event whose type name is "Invoice" or until the recursion depth of 2 has been reached, which will itself not be included into the result. 
RecurseWithHierarchy 

Evaluates the given expression recursively until given condition or recursion depth is met. The function returns the traversed object hierarchy. When the stop condition expression evaluates to false, it will stop the current recursion without including the false evaluated object into the result. Default stop condition is !IsNull(_). The default maximum depth is 1000. Examples: [1,2].RecurseWithHierarchy([1,2], false, 2) Returns: [1:[1:[1,2],2:[1,2]],2:[1:[1,2], 2:[1,2]]] (1).RecurseWithHierarchy(_ + 1, _ < 5) Returns: 1:[2:[3:[4]]] RemoveLeaves(eventLog.Flows:From.Where(IsNull(_))).To.RecurseWithHierarchy(OutgoingFlows.To, !IsNull(_), 2) Returns: A hierarchy consisting of all the starter events of given event log and recursively all the event types reachable from them via flows until depth of 2 is reached. 
RecursiveFind 

Evaluates given expression recursively until given condition or recursion depth is met. The function collects all the traversed objects that match the given find expression along the way. When the find condition expression evaluates to true for the current object, it causes the following:
When the stop condition expression evaluates to false, it will stop the current recursion without including the false evaluated object into the result. Default stop condition is !IsNull(_). The default maximum depth is 1000. Continue after finding tells should the recursion be continued after a match has been found in the current branch. Examples: (1).RecursiveFind(_ + 1, _ == 100) Returns: 100 eventLog.Cases:GetAt(0, Events).RecursiveFind(NextInCase, Organization=="Finance", !IsNull(_)) Returns: For each case, returns the first (by time) event whose organization equals to "Finance". eventLog.Cases:Events.Where(Organization=="Finance") eventLog.Cases:GetAt(0, Events).RecursiveFind(NextInCase, Organization=="Finance", true, true) Returns: Both return for each case all events whose organization equals to "Finance". 
Hierachical object functions
Function  Parameters  Description 

FindRepeats 

Searches for repeating patterns in given array. Parameters:
Returns an array of arrays indicating the repeating patterns and their positions in the array formatted as follows:
Examples: FindRepeats([0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 2]) Returns: [ [[0, 1, 2], [0, 3]], [[0, 1], [0, 3]], [[1, 2], [1, 4]], [[0], [0, 3]], [[1], [1, 4]], [[2], [2, 5]] ] FindRepeats([0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 2], 0, true) Returns: [[[0, 1, 2], [0, 3]]] FindRepeats([1, "b", DateTime(2017), 1, "b", DateTime(2017)], 3) Returns: [[1, "b", DateTime(2017)], [0, 3]] 
Flatten 

Collects all the actual leaf values from given array, array of arrays or hierarchical object and returns them in a single array. If given a hierarchical object, this function collects actual leaf values instead of leaf level values. Elements in the returned array are in the same order they were found when traversing the input object using depth first search. When context object is included, should context objects in the internal nodes of a hierarchical object be also included into the result. Default is false. Examples: Flatten(1) Returns: 1 Flatten([1, 2]) Returns: [1,2] Flatten([[[1, 2],[3, 4]],[[5, 6]]]) Returns: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] Flatten([[1, 2], 3]) Returns: [1, 2, 3] Flatten([[1,2,3,4], null, [5], [1, null]]) Returns: [1, 2, 3, 4, null, 5, 1, null] Flatten(["a":1, "b":2]) Flatten(["a":1, "b":2], false) Returns: [1, 2] Flatten(["a":1, "b":2], true) Returns: ["a", 1, "b", 2] 
RemoveLeaves 

Remove one level of hierarchy from a hierarchical object replacing all the bottom level hierarchical arrays with the context objects of the hierarchical arrays. Returns the given object with all the bottom level hierarchical arrays with the context objects of the hierarchical arrays. Examples: RemoveLeaves(["foo":1, "bar":2]) Returns: ["foo", "bar"] RemoveLeaves(eventLog.Flows:From.Where(IsNull(_))) Results: All the flows starting the cases in the event log. 
ReplaceLeafValues 

Replace all leaf values of given array or hierarchical object at given levels up from the leaf level with results of given expression. Examples: ReplaceLeafValues([1,2, null], "x", If(IsNull(x), null, x+1), 0) Result: [2, 4, null] ReplaceLeafValues([[[1,2],[2,3]],[[3,4],[4,5]]], "x", Flatten(x), 0) Result: [[[[1],[2]],[[2],[3]]],[[[3],[4]],[[4],[5]]]] ReplaceLeafValues([[[1,2],[2,3]],[[3,4],[4,5]]], "x", Flatten(x), 1) Result: [[[1,2],[2,3]],[[3,4],[4,5]]] ReplaceLeafValues([[[1,2],[2,3]],[[3,4],[4,5]]], "x", Flatten(x), 2) Result: [[1,2,2,3],[3,4,4,5]] ReplaceLeafValues([[[1,2],[2,3]],[[3,4],[4,5]]], "x", Flatten(x), 3) Result: [1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5] 
SliceMiddle 

Extracts a continuous range of an array or hierarchical object. If given a hierarchical object, applies the function at the level that is specified levels level up from the leaf level. Start index: Negative value means that the index is counting from the end of the array. If array does not have element at this given index, empty array is returned. End index: not included into the extracted range. Negative value means that the index is counting from the end of the array. If array does not have element at this given index, all the elements to the end from the start index will be extracted. Levels up: At which level of the hierarchical object are we operating (number of levels up from the leaf level). Should be at least 1 (since 0 level does not contain arrays). Examples: SliceMiddle(1, 2, 1, [[0, 1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6, 7]]) Returns: [[1], [5]] SliceMiddle(2, 4, 1, [[0, 1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6, 7]]) Returns: [[2, 3], [6, 7]] SliceMiddle(0, 1, 2, [[0, 1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6, 7]]) Returns: [0, 1, 2, 3] SliceMiddle(3, 5, 1, [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]) Returns: [3, 4] SliceMiddle(3, 1, 1, [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]) Returns: [5, 6] SliceMiddle(3, 1, 1, [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]) Returns: [3, 4, 5, 6] 
Snowflake connection functions
Function  Parameters  Description 

CallStoredProcedure 

Calls a Snowflake stored procedure (it needs to preexist in the Snowflake when this function is called). The function returns the return value of the stored procedure. If the result is a table, its contents will be returned as an inmemory DataFrame. Object results are returned as JSON strings. Parameters:
Security note: All QPR ProcessAnalyzer users can use the CallStoredProcedure function and call Snowflake stored procedures that are in the schema configured to the Snowflake connection string. Create only stored procedures to that schema, that are safe for any user to run. Example 1: Stored procedure to calculate a sum of two numbers. Create following stored procedure to Snowflake: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE SUMOFNUMBERS(NUMBER1 NUMBER, NUMBER2 NUMBER) RETURNS NUMBER LANGUAGE SQL EXECUTE AS OWNER AS ' BEGIN RETURN NUMBER1 + NUMBER2; END'; The stored procedure can be called as follows: CreateSnowflakeConnection() .CallStoredProcedure( "SUMOFNUMBERS", #{ "NUMBER1": 3, "NUMBER2": 5 } ); Returns: 8 Example 2: Calls a stored procedure named train_ml_model with a dictionary parameter containing InputEvents key that has SQL query string as value which, when run in the same Snowflake connection, will return all the contents of data table. ColumnMappings key that has a dictobject containing column role mappings of the InputEvents data. let dt = ModelById(1).EventsDataTable; CreateSnowflakeConnection() .CallStoredProcedure("train_ml_model", #{ "ColumnMappings": dt.ColumnMappings, "InputEvents": dt.SqlDataFrame }); 
CreateSnowflakeConnection  Parameters dictionary 
Creates an object representing connection to Snowflake. Takes as a parameter a dictionary with following settings names:
If neither OdbcConnectionString or OdbcConnectionStringKey is defined, the system configured connection string will be used. Examples: ProjectByName("My project") .CreateSnowflakeConnection( #{ "OdbcConnectionStringKey": "MyConnectionStringKey" } ); 
ToSqlDataFrame  Inmemory dataframe  Same functionality as in the Model.ToSqlDataFrame, except the SQL dataframe is created for the connection which the function is called for.
Example: Create an SQL dataframe that is passed as parameter to a Snowflake procedure: let df = ToDataFrame([[0, "zero"], [2, "two"], [3, "three"]], ["id", "right"]); let connection = project.CreateSnowflakeConnection(); connection.CallStoredProcedure("MyProcedure", #{"input": connection.ToSqlDataFrame(df)}); 